Vandana Nutrition and Diabetic Education Clinic

Vandana Nutrition and Diabetic Education Clinic
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VANDANA NUTRITION & DIABETES EDUCATION CLINIC ,You can visit my facebook page @dtvandanasingh Follow me on Twitter-Vandana Nutrition and Diabetic Education Clinic

Wednesday, July 1, 2020

What is Diabetes Mellitus-Type 2 You Need to know ?


You can visit my facebook page @dtvandanasingh Follow me on Twitter-Vandana Nutrition and Diabetic Education Clinic


What is Diabetes Mellitus-Type 2

You Need to know ?


  

Diabetes Mellitus is a metabolic disorder. In which body cannot metabolize carbohydrate into simple sugar i.e. Glucose because the body does not produce enough Insulin or our body is resistant to Insulin, resulting in increasing Blood Glucose (sugar).

When your blood glucose remain too high for a long time, it can lead to serious health problems .To stay healthy with Type 2 diabetes, you must keep your level of blood glucose under control.

Insulin is a hormone that regulates the movement of glucose into cells .Pancreas is the organ which produces this hormone.


  
 



  

In simple term you can understand in Lock & Key System:

Insulin works with cells of your body like a key works with a lock.
Lock are cells in our body that has a door .This door into the cell is closed and locked. The right key in this ‘’keyhole’’ will unlock the door. To let blood glucose into cell, the door to the cell has to be unlocked. 


Insulin is the key that unlock the door. 
                                  

When insulin unlocks the cell, glucose can move from the blood into the cell to provide energy.

                                     


When you have Type 2 Diabetes, you can have either or both of these two types of problem with insulin:

1.     Your body makes enough insulin (key), but the insulin does not work well together with lock .then it is difficult for blood glucose to move from your blood into cells of your body the way it should.


   
                                        


.     Your body makes insulin, but not as much as you need .When there are not enough keys to open the locks, it’s hard for enough blood glucose to move from body vessels into the cells of your body. 


                                                                            


Because of these problems with insulin, the level of blood glucose in your blood can get too high.

 

Diagnosis :  


        

FASTING SUGAR

(mg/dl)

RANDOM

(mg/dl)

OGTT (2 hours )

(mg/dl)

 

HbA1c (%)

 >126 mg/dl

>140-200  mg/dl

> 200 mg/dl

>   6.5%












  Fasting Sugar : Check blood sugar level after not eating and drinking (except water) for at least 8 hours. When fasting plasma glucose level is more than (>) 126 mg/dl.  

Oral glucose tolerance – Check blood sugar level 2 hours after drinking 75 gm of glucose .The amount is dosed by weight in paediatric patients.. If  sugar is > 200 mg/dl.

HbA1c –Check average blood sugar over last 3 months .If it is > 6.5 % ,then he/she is diabetes 






  Sign & Symptoms:       Early signs and symptoms of Type 2 diabetes can include:

ü Increased thirst

ü Frequent  Urination

ü Hunger

ü Fatigue

ü Blurred Vision

ü Excessive hunger

ü Excessive Thirst

ü Weight gain or weight loss

ü Poor wound healing

In some cases, there may be no symptoms.



Complications:       Uncontrolled diabetes increases the risk of many serious health problems. Diabetes affects many major organs, including your heart, blood vessels, nerves, eyes and kidneys.



   
 
  Micro vascular Complications

Diabetic Retinopathy:  Diabetic retinopathy is a complication that is associated with blood vessel damage in the retina that happens as a result of diabetes.

Diabetic Nephropathy:  Factors that can develop kidney disease include genetics, high blood sugar & high blood pressure. If a person keeps diabetes and blood pressure under control, the lower the chance of getting kidney disease.

Diabetic Neuropathy: High plasma glucose can damage nerves .It affects the nerves of legs and feet first, followed by the hands and arms. Symptoms include: numbness ,tingling or burning sensation,cramps,foot ulcers , infections 


Macro vascular Complications:

Stroke:  Stroke is a condition in which blood supply to be the brain is interrupted and brain tissue is damaged. High blood sugar, smoking, obesity ,High blood pressure,Dislipidemia,excessive alcohol intake, Family history of heart disease or stroke.

Heart Disease : Because of high blood sugar level ,body cannot use all of this sugar properly ,so more of it sticks to RBC (red blood cells) & builds up in the body. This build-up can block and damage the vessels carrying blood to and from heart. This can lead to interrupted supply of oxygen and nutrients to the heart.

Peripheral vascular Disease (PVD): PVD typically cause pain & fatigue ,often in your legs  & especially during  exercise.





  Controlling blood sugar levels can help prevent these complications.

Treatment:  

ü  Diabetes treatment include Diet, Exercise, Anti-diabetic Medication or insulin therapy.

ü  Physical activity, quitting smoking, weight loss, Nutrition counseling 





  Thanks For reading my Article.

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